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In the past 15 years there have been significant advances in luminescence dating with the advent of single aliquot and grain analysis, and associated protocols with blue/green diodes that can effectively compensated for laboratory induced sensitivity changes (Murray and Wintle, 2003; Wintle and Murray, 2006; Duller, 2012) and render accurate ages for the past ca. Most recently, the development of protocols for inducing the thermal-transfer of deeply trapped electrons has extended potentially OSL dating to the 106 year timescale for well solar-reset quartz and potassium feldspar grains from eolian and littoral environments (Duller and Wintle, 2012).Common silicate minerals like quartz and potassium feldspar contain lattice-charge defects formed during crystallization and from subsequent exposure to ionizing radiation.Similar protocols have been also developed for quartz that has been particularly useful for dating Pleistocene loess deposits (e.g. A common metric used is an overdispersion percentage of a D values within 2σ errors, though rarely, if ever is a naught value calculated with equivalent dose data.Overdispersion values ~≤ 20% (at two sigma errors) are routinely assessed for quartz grains that are well solar reset, like eolian sands (e.g.

The exposure of quartz and feldspar grains to sunlight for 60 seconds effectively diminishes the time-stored OSL signal to a low definable level.

Ensuing research in the 1970s documented that marine and other sediments with a prior sunlight exposure of hours to days were suitable for thermoluminescence dating (Wintle and Huntley, 1980).

Discoveries in the 1980s and 1990s that exposure of quartz and feldspar grains to a tunable light source, initially with lasers and later by light emitting diodes, yield luminescence components that are solar reset within seconds to minutes, expanded greatly the utility of the method (Huntley et al., 1985; Hütt et al., 1988; Aitken, 1998).

There is significant variability in the luminescence properties of quartz and potassium feldspar grains related to crystalline structure, minor and rare-earth impurities, solid-solution relations, number of luminescence cycles (Fig. Thus, because of this inherent variability in dose sensitivity of quartz and feldspar, analytical procedures for dating often need to be tailored for a specific geologic provenance.

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The advent of single aliquot regenerative (SAR) dose procedures for quartz (Murray and Wintle, 2003; Wintle and Murray, 2006) has provided the needed analy tical flexibility to compensate for variable luminescence properties of quartz and feldspar grains and laboratory-induced sensitivity changes, particularly associated with preheat treatments and with laboratory beta irradiation.Alpha particles are about 90 to 95% less effective in inducing luminescence compared to beta and gamma radiation.