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Nader Shah conquered the region as part of his invasion of the Mughal Empire in 1739.Despite invasion, Multan remained northwest India's premier commercial centre throughout most of the 18th century. After repeated invasions following the collapse of the Mughal Empire, Multan was reduced from being one of the world's most important early-modern commercial centres, to a regional trading town.Clockwise from the top: the 13th century Shrine of Bahauddin Zakariya, Shahi Eid Gah Mosque, Multan's Ghanta Ghar, detail on the 14th century Tomb of Shah Rukn-e-Alam, shrine of Shamsuddin Sabzwari, blue-tiled tomb of Shah Gardez and is the major cultural and economic centre of southern Punjab. The ancient city was site of the renowned Multan Sun Temple, and was besieged by Alexander the Great during the Mallian Campaign.and attracted a multitude of Sufi mystics in the 11th and 12th centuries, earning the city the nickname City of Saints.Multan features an arid climate (Köppen climate classification BWh) with very hot summers and mild winters.The average annual precipitations 186 millimetres (7.3 in).Multan's urban typology is similar to other ancient cities in South Asia, such as Peshawar, Lahore, and Delhi - all of which were founded near a major river, and included an old walled city, as well as a royal citadel.
During the siege of the city's citadel, Alexander leaped into the inner area of the citadel, By the mid-800s, the Banu Munabbih (also known as the Banu Sama), who claimed descent from the Prophet Muhammad's Quraysh tribe came to rule Multan, and established the Amirate of Banu Munabbih, which ruled for the next century.In 1817, Ranjit Singh sent a body of troops to Multan under the command of Diwan Bhiwani Das to receive from Nawab Muzaffar Khan the tribute he owed to the Sikh Darbar.